November, 2005

A chronological history of Ainu nation

アイヌ民族の歴史年表 (英語版)


Ainu nation is the people who lived in Honshu northeast region, Hokkaido, Chishima and Sakhalin. They are still living in Hokkaido.The word "Ainu" is pretense of Ainu nation, who lived in Donan district of Hokkaido. It is not known what the other Ainu called themselves. Nevertheless, I would like to use the word "Ainu" because most of other names to call them contain somewhat negative nuances.



Ancient Ainu in Mutsu region


Chinese history book "So-sho" reports about the Throne sentence of Bu, the king of Japan. King Bu states that he has conquered 55 countries of Ainu.

Another Chinese book quotes the report saying "Big mountains make the border of east and north between Yamato and countries of Ainu." Now it is said that "Big mountains" means mount Hakone.


The Yamato Imperial Court installed the Fort of Nutari, Iwafune and Tsukisara along the shoreline of Japan Sea side. It is considered that Nutari is at the current Niigata city, Iwafune at Murakami city, Niigata, Tsukisara is somewhere in southern Akita.


The Yamato Imperial Court welcomes the Ainu from Koshi and Michinoku region, and gives the rank. (Yamato is the name of the power of ancient Japan)



The conquest of Ainu by Hirafu Abe


The first campaign: Hirafu Abe, then the governor of Koshi, invades north in the Sea of Japan leading 180 warships.

Hirafu, reached in Akita, where he made Chief Oga to obey him. Then he advanced in Arima beach, where he made contact with the Watarishima Ainu maybe from Hokkaido. The beach is considered the neiborhood of Tosa lake, that is located at the mouth of Iwaki River.

Then Hirafu got in Hokkaido, where he reportedly set up Shiribeshi local office with advice of the natives.


The third exploration by Hirafu: He made a battle with Shukushin, another Ainu tribe, and overthrow them.

According to the Chronicle, he found a village of Watarishima Ainu. People of Watarishima sought help because they were just attacked by Shukushin tribe.

There came the fleet of Shukushin. Hirafu held out woven silk and weapon as the symbol of friendship and observe the attitude of them. An elder came out of Shukushin and picked up those things once, but he put it up, showing that they had no intention to make peace.

The Shukushin returned to their Herobe Island, where they entrenched. Hirafu landed Herobe, and after an "ask for peace" again started the attack. At the end of a fierce battle, Shukushin lost. They surrendered after spoiling their children and wives. Hirafu returned and sent up 50 Shukushins to the Imperial Court.

It is unclear what the Shukushin was, and there are so many issues about them. However they were presumably one of the northernmost tribes of Ainu.


Japan Navy forces suffered the crushing defeat by Tou/Silla Allied Forces at the battle of Hakusuki River in Korea. Tou is the imperial of China in those days. Silla is one of the kingdoms of Korea.

Because Japan Navy fell in destructive state, its advance to northern district ceased temporarily.


Beginning of large scale invasion to Mutsu

About 700

Minister Sukune Takeuchi reported about his round of inspection for the eastern countries. He said "There is a big state of Ainu named Hidakami in the far east. Both men and women are tattooed and very brave. The land is large and fertile. So that we should conquer and take it over."

The state of Hidakami is thought to be located from current Sendai plain to Kitakami basin.


Fort of Iwafune was build in the northern part of Echigo plain. Echigo province applied for establishment of the new Dewa province, and strengthened north advance movement.


Imperial Court appointed two Generals. One was for conquering Mutsu, the side of Pacific ocean, another for Echigo, the side of Japan sea. The Echigo force advanced with 100 ships to the mouth of Mogami River, and constructed the fort of Dewa as a foothold.


Dewa province was established neibouring Echigo to the north. That bore a role of the wedge into the Ainu society, which was spreading to north to Hokkaido.

Originally, the current Tohoku district was called Mutsu as a total. Dewa was divided from Mutsu then for convenience of Yamato's rule.


200 families entered the fort of Dewa from Owari, Ueno, Shinano and Echigo province. Then thousands of families from various provinces settled taking lands away from Ainu.


An insurrection of Ainu: It was the first large scale insurrection obvious in literatures. The subjugation force caught more than 1400 Ainus. Many of them were cut head.


Another Ainu insurrection occurred in the northern part of Sendai plain. The Imperial Court sent 30,000 soldiers from Kanto region and suppressed Ainu. A Mutsu front quarter, named Taga-jo was settled near the current Sendai city. "Jo" means castle in Japanese.


Over 700 Ainus were sent to several western provinces as captive. Since then, thousands of Ainus resisting the rule of Japan were sent to provinces of Yamato, the original Japan.


Fort of Dewa, which remarked the border between Japan and Ainu, was relocated from Sakata to Akita, the northern district.


It discovered many gold mines in Mutsu. Yamato developed them earnestly. Forts were constructed successively in Momonou, Ogachi and Iji that deviated the border up to north.

Several thousands of people were caught and sent off to those mines and forts because of their unroyalness, unobedience, unfriendliness and uneasiness. Likewise a lot of vagrants, murderers, criminals and orphans were expelled.


Nearly a thousand farmers of Shimotsuke province escaped in Mutsu in order to escape from "an assigned task."



The great war of Mutsu (38 years' war)


The Ukanme county of northern Sendai rebelled against Yamato. It's chief Ukuhau rejected taxation. Instead he organized soldiers and capture the fort of Momonou.

Surugamaro Otomo of the Yamato Imperial Court lead the army of 20,000 and invade and attack in Mutsu. They scattered rebels and furthermore seized Southern half of the current Akita prefecture.

Ainus were deprived their lands and expelled to western districts such as Kyushu or Shikoku, where they were treated as slaves.


The Ainu of Dewa beat Yamato force. Yamato opposed to Ainu organizing royal Ainu troops. Azamaro of Iji county headed them.


Azamaro rose in revolt. He took the fort of Iji and killed it's commander. Then he attacked Tagajo head quarter and burned down. Once a royal Azamaro changed his mind reportedly because he was discriminated by fellow officers and antipathized to rough treatment of local inhabitants.

The Imperial Court recaptured Tagajo by military power of tens of thousands, but Azamaro held resistance for one more year.



A hard fight of Aterui


Emperor Kanmu ordered conquest of Ainu and subjugation of northeastern region. He appointed Kosami Ki the commander-in-chief of an expeditionary force against Ainus. Kosami prepared the war for 3years.

Hidakami nations appointed Aterui of Tamo as chief and Morei of Iwagu as lieutenant commander and hardened the system to defend.


March Kosami Ki departed from Tagajo with a huge army of 50,000. They invaded and attacked while burning down 14 villages and 800 houses of Ainu. Aterui retreats by degrees while submitting delay attack.

April A 4,000 troop of Kosami's vanguard was to go across Kitakami River at the point Subuse near Koromogawa. Getting this information, Aterui abruptly turned in offensive. Aterui's force was assumed only a few 1500.

The Kosami force suffers a crushing defeat by the sudden attack. Half of a military unit is suffered. 25 dead, 245 injured by arrows, 1,036 drowned in the river, 1,217 fled.

September Kosami returned to Miyako. He was summoned and deprived of rank of commander-in-chief.


The secondary invasion campaign: A bigger army of 100,000 soldiers were organized. By army's report, Ainu lost 457 officers, and 1501 captured. Furthermore they lost 75 footholds and were taken 85 horses. However Aterui managed to survive.


In this year alone, 9000 Yamato people settled in occupied land. They might be participants of the campaign mainly from Kanto district.


February Tamuramaro Sakanoue, commander-in-chief of an expeditionary force began the third campaign. Tamuramaro had promoted meritorious services as one of 4 lieutenant commanders in last war.

He advanced into Kitakami basin with the forces of 40,000. Izawa, the home ground of Aterui, were defeated and occupied. Aterui had been weakened by repeated aggression, and obliged to hide in the mountain.


January Tamuramaro constructed Izawa-jo after seizing the whole Kitakami basin. He expelled Ainus from around the castle and let 4,000 Yamato people settled there.

April Aterui and Morei surrendered to Tamuramaro with only some 500 persons.

August Aterui and Morei were taken to Kyoto, and executed there. The Imperial Court said "Ainu's mind is unsettled like that of beast. They must betray in someday", and neglected Tamuramaro's objection.


It began the preparation for the fourth campaign to the north. At this time Tamuramaro aimed to reach the northern end of Honshu. He constructed Shiwa-jo in the northern end of Kitakami basin near the current Morioka city.


An important talking in the presence of emperor was held. That was called the debate about "the virtuous governing for people".

For Masamichi Sugano insisting on continuing campaign, Otsugu Fujiwara objected saying "In the present day, people are suffering by military affairs and public construction. Farmers would be in ease when this two projects were interrupted."

Emperor took the opinion of Otugu, and the fourth Mutsu campaign was canceled. The great war of Mutsu was ended. But small scale invasions were still continued afterwards.

Emperor also proclaimed that some autonomy such as to elect their local community leader would be permitted in the newly occupied region.



The resistance of Ainu captives


Many Ainu soldiers and his family became a captive after a series of war put in various provinces. They were called "Fushu" and were treated as lower ranked people than commoners.

10 men group of Fushu revolted in Harima province. They were accused for "not to change their ambition, and to betray the rule" and sent to far distant island.


600 of Fushu in Oumi province were dispatched to Dazaifu and becomes soldiers garrisoned at strategic posts in Kyushu.


It happened revolts of Fushu in Izumo and Kai provinces.


A provincial officer of Hyuga reported "Fushus have already died out. Few are survived."


Ainu Fushu revolted in Kazusa province. Provincial authorities arrested 57 militants and totally executed. The Imperial Court was concerned to the cruelty of the local authority.


It happened a revolt of Fushu in Simofusa province, the neibor of Kazusa. Provincial official reported "They burned the Court-built temple and massacred good citizen."

The Imperial Court command provinces of Kanto region to dispatch troops. The rebellion was suppressed soon, and more than 100 are executed. The Imperial Court criticized the oppression that went too far.



The insurrection of Ainu in Dewa (Revolt of Gankyo)


A famine hits Mutsu and Dewa in Gankyo era. Dissatisfaction rises for atrocity in Dewa.


February   The insurrection of the Gankyo occurs. The Ainu of Akita rebels against Yamato. The insurgents attacked Akita castle. The Ainus gathered as ants do with full of anger, surrounded barracks and storages, and set peripheral private houses on fire.

Dewa lord, named Okiyo Fujiwara threw away the castle and escaped. The chief of guards freed from the castle and hid himself laying down in the grass field nearby.

March   The Imperial Court ordered Mutsu to rescue Dewa. The Mutsu army was organized with 1,000 cavalry and 2,000 infantry commanded by Kajinaga Fujiwara. Adding to this, 2,000 soldiers of Dewa entered under Mutsu's control.

April    The army reached the bank of Akita River, when it was filled with fog from river. The Ainu insurgent force decided to take a surprise attack. 1,000 troops in ferry boats were emerged from foggy river. Several hundred troops attacked the army's back simultaneously.

The army was upset. Because soldiers stepped each other in an escape, so many were dead. Chief Kajinaga hid in field of tall grass for 5 days without food and drinks, and escaped on foot to Mutsu after Ainu troops left. Adjutant Arifusa Fumimuro suffers a dying serious wound, and Haruzumi Ono, another adjutant voided death hardly for lying latent under the dead bodies.

More than 500 person is killed by this battle and becomes a captive. The whole military equipment was taken to Ainu.

May The Imperial Court which received the report that Mutsu army was completely defeated, appointed Harukaze Ono for Dewa chief commander. He mobilized 4000 soldiers from Mutsu, Kozuke and Shimotuke.

May   Ainus of 12 villages in northeast part of Akita rebelled against Yamato. Akita castle is made a sudden attack on, and the Imperial Court force is defeated completely. Foods and armaments were taken through.

Dewa official reported "Ainu rebels are strong and active. Imperial army often lose the battles and leave the castles or the forts. It's moral falls and many soldiers are scattered."

June   Harukaze succeeded in conciliating armed forces of Ainu. They contained many of rebellion groups. He reported "Ainus hit their forehead on the ground and worshipped to express the thanks for Yamato' kindness. They changed manner and promise the royalty. To identify it, they gave two heads of leaders who have refused to obey."

July   Harukaze and royal Ainus surrounded Akita castle and attacked. 2000 rebel armies escape.

December    Rebel army more than 300 person of Kazuno surrendered. The revolt of the Gankyo era terminates.


Some 40 Ainu captives rebelled in Kazusa province. Reportedly, they stole government property, killed innocent people, burned private houses, and run away to mountains.

Provincial authorities sought the permission to seize them with "troops of a thousand," but the Imperial Court state that "They were escaped only for fearing to be punished by stealing crime. So it is enough to search for them with ordinary people,"and dismissed application of the authorities.

After all, Fushu were executed totally.


A rebellion by Ainu occurred in Dewa. It is called a revolt of the Tenkyo era. "Company of thieves" comes in Akita county. they occupied official dwellings, grazed taxes and take and burn property of a farmer.

Ainu troops took offensive to Akita castle force. But they lost. Army of Mutsu and Dewa suppressed the rebellion. It was the last large-scale resistance of Ainu in Tohoku region.


Ainu in Hokkaido

about 1200

The times of Satsumon culture accomplish an end, and the Ainu culture that took influence of Yamato's one.

It is thought that there were six tribe groups separating relatively from each other. Okhotsk culture has also been in parallel with Satsumon culture, but became extinct afterwards.


The Kamakura Shogunate expels more than 50 of robbery or pirate in Ezo island. Ezo island is current Hokkaido.

1217 Yoshitoki Hojo, the regent of Kamakura Shogunate appointed Taro Ando to Ezo governor-general. Hojo ordered to "protect a savage in those areas." Andos collected taxes by profit from trade ship, and set it up to Hojo family.

The Ando family lived in Tosa-minato, a port city faced Japan sea and ruled over Tsugaru plain. They had influence in Hokkaido beyond the Tsugaru straits.

Tosa-minato became to play a key role in northern sea trade. Trade ships of Ainu or those from Kyoto harboured a lot. It was counted in one of "three Tsu seven Minato," and was said to have equal power to west Hakata, Kyushu.



The struggle of Sakhalin Ainu against the Gen empire

around 1250

Mongolia (later Gen empire) established a quarter for advancing eastward in Nurugan, at the mouth of Amur river. They made Giremi tribe to their follower and put river mouth zone and northern Sakhalin under rule.

Giremi was said to belong to Gilyak (also called Nivkh) ethnically, which is different from Ainu. They might be Shukushin in the story of Hirafu Abe.

Gilyaks are now living in the area of both sides of Mamiya straights. A few people were living in Hokkaido, who were forced to transfer from Sakhalin during and after WW2.


According to the chronicle of Gen, Kugi tribe attacked Giremi. Giremi demands relief from Mongolia.

Mongolia force attacked and occupied Sakhalin. Kugi promised to belong to Mongolia. Kugi is said to be Ainus in Sakhalin.


Gen empire prepared to attack Japan. Gen. Atoukai ordered Kugi to push forward shipbuilding while exempting from tax.


Kugi revolts against Gen protesting requisition of food and staffs. The fight continued until 1286, and Gen spent military power more than 10,000.


Kugi rebelled again. They crossed the sea and advanced in the continent. They clashed with Gen armed forces near the lake Kiji in the Amur down stream area.


Kugi surrenders to Gen. After this, Kugi held the relation of obedience between Gen empire.




Dewa Ainu rose in revolt. Ando tried to suppress, but was defeated again. The revolt continued for 2 years. (details unclear)


A typhoon and tsunami attacked Tosa-minato. The castle, temples, shrine and many houses were washed away. It brought the death of 10 thousand people.


Min, the new imperial of China came into lower Amur river region. It set up branch offices in 3 places including Sakhalin and traded with Ainu.



Beginning of Yamato's rule in southern Hokkaido region


Ando family was defeated by Nanbu family. They left Tosa-minato and escape to Hokkaido. And began to rule Hokkaido by themselves.

They called Hokkaido as Ezo-chi, that means the land of Ezo. Ezo was a derogated name of Ainu originally but the word "Ezochi" became neutral geographical term in later years.

Around those years, Japanese had settled in southern region of Ezochi, they advanced to Yoichi in the west coast, and to Mukawa in the east coast. Japanese was called "wajin" which means people of Yamato.

Wajin saved power through trade with Ainu and advance to fishing grounds. Some powerful clans subsidiary of Ando family formed their foothold on the coast, which were called "12 Date". Date means fort or mini-castle.

Ando family set their municipal town on Matsumae, which is just the southwest end of Hokkaido. Matsmae is very inconvenient, has poor condition as the commercial port with scarce flat field. Only good point is easy to defend the attack from the ground and to access Tsugaru via sea.

Estimated population of Ainu in Hokkaido was about 500 thousand, which have decreased to 66 thousand after 400years. And only 15 thousand now.



The war of Koshamain


spring A young man called Okkai asked wajin blacksmith to make a knife. Okkai was the son of the chief of nearby Ainu village. The knife did not satisfy Okkai. A quarrel occurred about the knife, and angry blacksmith killed Okkai with that knife.

summer A mass of Ainu attacked Shinori, the wajin's village and killed that blacksmith. Reportedly, Ainus then slaughtered women and children without exception. Kobayashi, the chief of Shinori-date had no means to protect wajins.

autumn Rebellion converges once for hunting to prepare winter.


14 May Ainus rebelled again. Now they were allied setting Koshamain, chief of Oshamanbe village, their commander. Their military power was estimated about 9 thousand, consisting of 4 thousand from eastern, 2 thousand from northern and 3 thousand from western district.

After Shinori-date with only 300 guards fell soon, Kobayashi the chief flew into Hakodate. But Hakodate was never a sanctuary. Ainus run after Kobayashi and attacked and dropped Hakodate. Kobayashi and Kohno of Hakodate ran again to Mobetu-date, the strongest foothold of wajin.

17 May Koshamain surrounded Mobetsu-date after occupying Hakodate. About half of troop were divided from Ainu army and ordered to seize Matsumae.

The division advanced westwards, attacked and seized Nakano-date, Wakimoto-date, Onnai-date sequentially, and surrounded Odate in Matsumae. In response of demands for reinforcement from Matsumae, Kakizaki of Kaminokuni dispatched a relief military unit, which was crushed away on the road by ambush of Ainu.

Late May Odate of Matsumae felt by Ainu force. Koshamain divided the troops in two. 3 thousand troops were remained in Matsumae to guard, and Takenashi was ordered to seize Kaminokuni with 2 thousand soldiers. That might be the decisive mistake. Ainu troops were too dispersed and frontline was too spreading.

Late May Takenashi advanced northward along the seashore line. Haraguchi-date, Hiishi-date and Nebota-date were felt in sequence. Now, wajin's foothold were only Hanazawa-date and Mobetu-date.

Finally, Hanazawa-date in Kaminokuni was surrounded by big army of Ainus. Ssimultaneously, the western Ainus went southward to Kaminokuni.

End of May The commander of Hanazawa-date was named Nobuhiro Takeda. He performed a miracle plan, to set up Jack of straw one by one along a fence. Ainus shot arrows to them.

Ain's arrows were applied with Bushi, which was poison cotaining aconitine. Those who were shot died even if the injury was slight.

Once the shooting of Ainus was ceased, then Nobuhiro collect and shot returned these arrows. Takenashi's troop were confused by unexpected offensive, and escaped into the woods.

Nobuhiro was waiting this chance. He sprinkled oil around the woods, then set it on fire. Ainu who ran away from inside the woods was the prey of Nobuhiro's soldiers. Thus the Takenashi's force were exterminated.

Beginning of June Nobuhiro's force grew to ca 1,500. He carried out Odate recapture strategy. They entered Odate by downhill dash from a mountain behind of Odate and rescue lord Sadasue and other wajin hostages.

18 June After recapturing Haraguchi-date, Hiisi-date and Nebota-date, Nobuhiro entered in Mobetu-date. Nobuhiro was appointed to general chief of wajin force. All the soldiers of Dates were concentrated to Mobetu-date. On the contrary, Koshamain's soldiers were assumed to decrease in some 3000.

20 June Wajin force appeared in Nanae Beach from Mobetsu and fronted Ainu force of Hakodate. Nobuhiro repeated offense and retreat, and invited out Ainu force by this action.

Koshamain advanced Nanae Beach, there he fell into trap of Nobuhiro. A story describes Koshamain's final moments as below.

When Nobuhiro pretended to escape into a forest, Koshamain got on force and pursued him. Nobuhiro was waiting Koshamain to come in the shadow of large tree.

Koshamain and his subordinates had come. Nobuhiro squeezed the tightly-strung bow and shot the arrow of sure death. Koshamain and his son fell at the place. Nobuhiro jumped out from shadow and cut down Koshamain's subordinates.



Acquiring the real power of Kakizaki family

Nobuhiro Takeda got power and prestige as the hero of wajin. He married Ando's daughter, and was adopted in the son of Kakizaki, lord of Hanazawa-date.

He built Suzaki-date as a temporary fort and started to build Katsuyama-date as the stronger foothold.


One of tops of Kakizaki's rank named Takamasa Koyama tried to topple Nohiro's rule conspiring with Ando family of Odate and Mobetsu. However it was found out by Nobuhiro. Koyama was executed.


Nobuhiro was dead at the age of 64 years old. His son Mitsuhiro Kakizaki succeeded. He was also brave and smart man. He wanted to be the man of power.


At first he appealed to Ando family (then in Akita) for misgovernment of Tsunetoshi Shimokuni, the administrator of Ezo. The appeal stated that Tsunetoshi had done many acts of the roughness, such as killing innocent persons or submerging girls in the sea as victims.

Because all of the lords of Date objected to Tsunetoshi, Ando family sent a punitive expedition to Odate, Matsumae. Tsunetoshi killed himself. Suetane Aihara succeeded the post of administrator. Through this episode Kakizaki's weight in political scene became heavier.


Mobetsu-date was attacked by Ainus and fallen. Mobetsu was another never-fallen fort since Koshamain's era. The lord of Mobetsu was derived from branch family of Ando. He was protected by Mitsuhiro and given Tomari-date. Now the master and servant relation was completely reversed.



The rebellion of brothers Shoya and Koushi


Brothers Shoya and Koushi rose in revolt. They were chiefs of eastern Ainu village an the successors of Koshamain.

They made fierce attacks on Shinori-date, Hakodate and Yokuramae-date. Lords of those fort lost the battle and killed themselves.

Mitsuhiro Kakizaki and his son Yoshihiro stopped further advance of Ainus. Ainus was now very careful learning from lessons of Koshamain's war, and never advanced deeply at once .


Brothers Shoya and Koushi rose again. Onnai-date was destructed by fire. The lord killed himself. Onnai-date was located in Fukushima, neighbourhood town of Matsumae.

The Ainu force fell down Odate of Matsumae. Suetane Aihara, the administrator of Ezo also fell together with his fort. Thus Kakizaki's Katsuyama-date in Kaminokuni was almost only one remained as wajin's foothold.


Mitsuhiro and Yoshihiro got in Odate, which had become vacant since last year. They moved with 180 ships from Kaminokuni.

Mitsuhiro repaired Odate and renamed Tokuyama-date. He made it Kakizaki's basal foothold. Yoshihiro's brother Takahiro was appointed in the lord of Katsuyama-date.

Mitsuhiro sent the letter to Ando family of Akita which described the reason of moving to Hiyama. In that letter Mitsuhiro wished to be appointed to the chief administrator under Ando family. It is said that Ando rejected this proposal twice and approved at the third negotiation. By a certain view Odate was possible to be fallen by Mitsuhiro's soldiers pretending Ainu force in real.


Brothers Shoya and Koushi rose once again and attacked Tokuyamada-date. Mitsuhiro pretended to make peace and invited the Brothers. In the at the midst of banquet, Mitsuhiro assassinated the brothers. Then Mitsuhiro was 60 years old.

In a story the scene of the assassin was described as below:

Mitsuhiro let women hit "kinuta" (wooden hammer for producing hemp) and mask the sound of armaments. Soldiers crushed into banquet room of which doors were unlocked before. Bodies of slaughtered Ainu were buried near the fort, and called Ezo's tomb later.


Many merchant ships were coming to Ezo. Instead Hakodate occupied by Ainu, Matsumae becomes main foothold of Ezo trade. Kakizaki family was given the rights to collect tax by Ando as the administrator of Ezo.



The revolt of Tanakasashi and his son


A new type of revolt in east and west Ezo. This time rebellion occurred simultaneously in each Ainu area. One of the Ainu forces attacked Tokuyama-date, but repulsed. Lot of wajins were killed. Yoshihiro Kakizaki defended in the front line that bound Kaminokuni and Matsumae.


Tanakasashi, the Ainu chief of Setanai revolted. Setanai was a village facing western seaside indifference with the past revolt.

Tanakasashi fell Aetanai-date and lord Sukekane Kudo died in the war. Yoshihiro got back to Katsuyama-date and made the progress headquarters.

He dispatched Kyuemon Kudo and attack party to Setanai. Tanakasashi beated this party.


A military unit of Tanakasashi made a night attack to Tokuyama-date. It is said Yoshihiro personally wields spear then and repulsed it.


Tanakasashi advanced to the south. Yoshihiro entered into the defending battle of Katsuyama-date. Yoshihiro's force was surrounded. Yoshihiro realizes disadvantage and offered reconciliation.

He put the goods for compensation on the way of a slope of outside the castle. This was a stratagem. When Tanakasashi and followers were approaching to collect goods, Yoshihiro's soldiers shot arrows all at once from inside the castle.

Ainus were upset and scattered to the river Amano-gawa. But the river could not be traversed because it's average were then raised with the snow melting water in March.

Ainus were driven into a pond at the foot of castle, and said to be annihilated.


Tarikona rose in revolt. Tarikona was daughter's husband of late Tanakasashi. He directly attacked Tokuyama-date, but repulsed by the hard fight of Suehiro, the successor of Yoshihiro.

It lasts for five years afterwards the guerrilla war of Tarikona.


Tarikona made the fierce attack on Katsuyama-date aiming Yoshihiro then retired. Yoshihiro knowing his inferiority, begged reconciliation again.

As did so, Yoshihiro hosted a banquette. And, in the midst of feast in Katsuyama-date, he murdered the couple of Tarikona.


Formation of Wajin and Ainu agreement


Suehiro, the successor of Yoshihiro planned compromise with Ainu who did not stop rebelling afterwards. He talked and agreed between chief Hashitain in Seta (the representative of west region), and Chikomotain (the representative of east region).

Contents of Wajin and Ainu agreement: A line was set from Shiriuchi to Kaminokuni, which was regarded as the border between wajin and Ainu. Wajin's living area was decreased in 1/3 since the time of a rebellion of Koshamain. It limited in a tiny part around Matsumae and Kaminokuni. Almost all the part of Ezochi was to belong to Ainu.

Suehiro appointed Hashitain and Chikomotain in the administrator of west and east region respectively.


Kakizaki family established the local regulations about traffics of merchant ships for the land of "Iteki." Iteki means the savages of Ezo.

They had an authority to collect taxes from merchant ships coming in the Ezochi, and to grant parts of this to the both Ainu administrator. Kakizaki family could be specialized as the ruler of the monopoly of Ezochi trade through this system.

Since the reconcilement, years of peace realized. According to a document, Ainus named Suehiro "Kamuitokui" (friend of God) and respected him.

But in reality, the ruling system for Ainu and predominance of Kakiszaki in trading business were established through this agreement.



Promotion to a daimyo of Matsumae (ex-Kakizaki)


Over a century of civil strife was over in Japan. Hideyoshi Toyotomi unified all the country and became the dictator of Japan. Nobuhiro, the son of Suehiro planned to develop the relation with the power of state.

Nobuhiro visited Kyoto and was given an audience with Hideyoshi. He was conferred certain rank and became a "daimyo," the lord of the province. Thus Kakizaki family got the same line as Ando family from position of the chief administrator.


Nobuhiro gained fame by a war in Mutsu district. He led vassals and Ainu troop. It took reputation that "The arrow which the Ezo shot is successful by all means. No men could survive even if wounded slightly."


Hideyoshi Toyotomi uttered the subjugation of Korea. Yoshihiro visited the front quarter in Kyushu and met Hideyoshi again. Hideyoshi gave him "Goshuinjo" (red-seal letter), in which Hideyoshi granted to take the name of "Ezo island master" and the rights to collect tax from merchant ships.

This red-seal letter seemed somewhat terrible, which was written as below:

Persons coming to Matsumae from the various countries, should not go in and out or make business without Kakizaki's permission. Those who disobeyed should be beheaded. Any Ainu who betrays Yoshihiro's command unreasonably should be beheaded. Anyone who betrayed laws of the Yamato state should be beheaded.

Yoshihiro came back to Ezo with great pleasure. It is said that he gathered Ainu chiefs and read aloud the Goshuinjo, thereafter threaten "If you betray my order, the lord of Yamato will come for the conquest with the big army of hundreds of thousands."


Hideyoshi died. Ieyasu Tokugawa won the power and found Edo Shogunate. Toyotomi family was extinct.

After death of Hideyoshi, Yoshihiro comes close to Ieyasu. He met Ieyasu and sweared the allegiance.

Yoshihiro changed it's family name from Kakizaki to Matsumae because Kakizaki was only the name of Ando' subordinates. The name of Matsumae was took from Matwumainu, the Ainu name for Oshima peninsula. Oshima is the southern region of Hokkaido including wajin's land. It is said Matsu of Matsumae was suggesting Matsudaira, former family name of Tokugawa.

About the term of feudal clan system of Japan: Each province was called Kuni that means country. Kuni is near the same as current prefecture. Each Kuni was governed by Han that means feudal clan. Han was usually called after the name of it's Kuni, and the name of it's lord was different from the name of Han.

In Matsumae clan, it was exceptionally the same as the name of it's lord, it's Kuni and it's capital town.


Ieyasu gave Matsumae family "Kokuinjou" (Black sealed letter) that recognized the monopoly of trade in Ezochi. As a result, all the merchant ships of wajin were to trade with Ainu through Matsumae. The direct trade of Ainu with wajin of Honshu was prohibited.

Yoshihiro, now the daimyo Matsumae's chief built a castle Matsumae-jo (or Fukuyama-jo) on a plateau of the south side of Tokuyama-date. Port of Matsumae was made the broadcast point of Ezochi trade.

Yoshihiro obliged inspection in Matsumae to all merchant ships to trade in Ezochi. In addition, He appointed the trade places. The guard station were put in Kameda in the east and Kumaishi in the west. Wajin was prohibited to colonize beyond there.


An episode: Gold rush and hidden Christian


It discovered gold dust mines in the mount Sengendake, which divided Matsumae and Kaminokuni. It later spread through Shimamaki, Kunnui and Hidaka rivers.

Usually all the mines were under direct management of the Shogunate, however Sengendake was excepted from regulation accounting it's specialty of Ezochi.

At that days It became a large famine mainly in Tohoku region. Tens of thousands of wajin flowed in Ezochi and made a gold rush. Most of them worked as gold diggers, fishery or woodcutter.

The rivers were damaged for digging. The forest was destroyed for logging and lumber production. In addition, fishers captured salmons abundantly at the river mouth for gold diggers. The result was a sharp decrease of salmons to go up the stream to Ainu of inland department. Life of Ainu of each place was suppressed.

Matsumaes accepted the coming-overs from the inland without limits. There were a lot of Christianity that escaped and made a voyage from persecution.


Father Geronimo D Angeles of Jesus society visited Matsumae for 10 days. He gave the Christian faithful the Gospel and grant baptism to some people.

Angeles was born in Sicilia. He enrolled in Society of Jesus at 18 years old. He was dispatched to Goa at first, India then to Malacca, where he was ordered to propagate in Japan. After learning Japanese in Macao, China he arrived at Japan in 1602. He learned Japanese further at a monastery of Fushimi, Kyoto. Afterwards he was active in propagation in the area between Kyoto and Sumpu.

When Shogunate proclaimed prohibition of religion of Christian, he was waiting for a departure in Nagasaki. There he happened to hear that there were many Christian refugee in Ezochi, and made decision to visit Ezochi secretly.

Matsumaes ignored the ban of the Shogunate, and assumed that "Matsumae is not Japan though the Shogun expelled Padres from Japan" and accepts activity of a Christian.


Another father of Society of Jesus sneaked in Matsumae. His name was Diogo Caruallo. He visited a Christian village deep in the valley of mount Sengendake in order to do consolation and mass ritual.

Caruallo's travel report is still exist now. In the report he says:

More than 300 big ships gather in Matsumae annually. There they gathered furs of sea-otter, salmon and a herring, damask from Ainus. The damask was called "Ezonishiki"(Ezo brocade). That was made and brought from China via Ainu of Sakhalin.

Lord Matsumae supplies no salaries to his subordinates, instead he gives the rights to utilize a certain river. So the origin of their income is fishes which are caught at the river.

The number of people of gold diggers to make a voyage to the Ezochi is described 50000 in 1619, and 30000 in 1620.

Diogo Caruallo (Carvalho?) was born in Coimbra, Portugal. He entered in Japan in 1613, and started for new post in Amakusa. He was expelled from Nagasaki by Christian prohibit law, but smuggles in 1616 again. He worked as assistance of Angeles in Tohoku region. It is assumed that Caruallo visited Matsumae again just before death.


Angeles (55) and Caruallo (46) became martyr in succession by reinforcement of ban.


Christian in Ezochi survived further 20 years secretly. But after the Christian revolt of Shimabara, Shogunate increased pressure on Matsumae clan to search and execute hidden Christians. Yielding the pressure, Matsumae execute 106 Christians who worked in sand gold ore of mount Sengendake.

A record after 50 years cleared that a clansman Ikegi, the official attendant in execution for postmortem examination, was himself a ex-Christian.


Administrate system of the market place (Shoba Chigyo-sei)

About 1630

It was established the administrate system of the market place called Shoba Chigyo-sei.

Usually the clan in Honshu used to supply crop of rice to their subordinates as the salary. Auordinates exchanged it in money or other goods. But in Ezochi, no rice were grown at that time. So Matsumae clan gave "Chigyo" instead.

At first Chigyo was the rights to fisher on each river in name of administration of that zone. Each retainer took fishes and exchange them in various goods.

But as soon as rivers were divided among the subordinates, new resources were needed. It was also the demand for merchant and Ainu adding to subordinates that the market place should be multiplied not only at Matsumae port.

Then Matsumae clan made the Ainu market place in 61 places of Ezochi and gave the retainers the trade right as Chigyo. Due to this system, trade partner of Ainu was limited to a vassal of Matsumae clan who administrated the market place.

The market place was described in a document of those days as below:

The market place is thought as like a shareland. They stands about 100 to 150 miles apart each other. All of those are in the seashore. No men live in the backyards. There spreads only the wilderness, deep forests and mountains.

The administrator shipped with stock yearly, traded the local Ainu, and sold the goods obtained there to the Honshu merchant in Matsumae. The profit from these trades became their income.

The new system jumped up the amount of trade. The big "Kitamae-sen," goods-carrying merchant ship, transported products of Ezochi to Kyoto and Osaka. The administrative power of Matsumae was also increased. Matsumae clan got ranked with the bigger ones.

On the other hand, Ainus' power and autonomy was much suffered. Once they went for trading to Sakhalin, River Amur and Honshu. Now their free trade activity was prohibited.

Monopoly brought unfair and unequal trade. Ainus were forced the disadvantageous exchange rate. After this, life of Ainus became suffered the big pressure.



Wajin residence ward is magnified to around Hakodate in the east and Esashi in the west.


Matsumae clan explored interior Ezochi and completed the map of Ezo.


Russia's frontier reached to the Sea of Okhotsk. Russia started further advance to the south.


Frieds(?) of Dutch East India Company appeared in Tokachi region and called at the port of Akkeshi. He reached at Sakhalin and Uruppu island afterwards. He declare of possession of Uruppu.


Henauke of Setanai rose in revolt in protest against tyranny of Matsumae clan, but it was brought under control by Matsumae force.


A revolt of chief Usukeshi of the western Ezochi happened in Setana. It was suppressed soon.


Ainu turmoil of the eastern part. Another revolt was happened in 1662. It suggests that Matsumae's power and tyranny extended to the far eastern part of Hokkaido.


The War of Shakushain


From cultural view, Ainus of east Ezochi were divided in 2 different tribal groups. Western half was the land of Shumu-kuru (west men in Ainu language), on the other hand eastern half was the land of Menashi-kuru (east men). Shumu-kuru were familiar and obedient to Matsumaes, but Menashi-kuru were not so.

The border of both groups were laid between Pae (current Monbetu) and Shibutyari (current Shizunai) of Hidaka province. Since around 1640, there was continuous conflict between them. One issue was around the rights on hunting area, another was about to cope with wajin gold diggers.

In those days gold dust was discovered there, and a lot of wajin gold diggers got into the depths of Shibutyari river. Gold diggers distrusted the environment of rivers and made a serious influences on the fishery.


2 tribes clashed brutally. Shakushain, vice-chief of Shibutyari killed a subordinate of Onibishi, chief of Pae. Matsumae clan began mediation and was reconciled with each other once.


Ainu of Pae attacked Shibutyari. They broke down the fort of Shibutyari, and killed it's chieftain Kamokutain. Shakushain succeeded Kamokutain.

After that, Pae overwhelmed Shibutyari with the aid of wajin gold diggers. Even Shakushain obliged to hide himself temporarily. On the other hand, hawk hunters of wajin supported Shakushain because it was the matter of life and death to defend the forest and environment.

At that time, hawks from Ezochi were made much among Shogunate or Daimyo, the greater clan for hunting game. As hawks are very expensive, a professional such as hawk hunter could be exist.


Shakushain regained power and confidence of Menashikuru. Conflicts became harder again.

Matsumae clan often sends a messenger and tried to let them settled. As a results, the ceremony of closing battles were performed under presence of the feudal lord in Matsumae castle.

Shakushain and Onibishi, the chieftain of Pae agreed reconciliation officially. But conflicts never ended.


Shakushain had been preparing for fighting. He caught the opportunity to assassin Onibishi. He surrounded a house where Onibishi stayed and attacked. Onibishi was murdered.

Immediately after killing Onibishi, Shakushain advanced to Pae. Onibishi' elder sister organized counter attack in vain. The sister was killed in action and Pae force was destroyed. The remnants flee towards west.

Agitation and organization

Utomasa, husband of elder sister of Onibishi went to Matsumae and entrusted to lend weapons and foods. But Matsumae clan rejected the proposal telling "It is sole a trouble between farmers. Either side of Ainu group is the people to be protected by our clan. So we cannot intervene."

Utomasa went back to his village and died immediately. Other messengers die soon in succession, too. Actually it seems to be true that they were infected by smallpox, which was contagious in Matsumae.

But Ainu people took it as a fearful event. Rumours were spread out within Ain's community that Utomasa and followers were killed with poison by Matsumae clan.

Shakushain had already decided his mind to revolt against Yamato, and made advantage of these rumors to organize Ainu people. He appealed that Ainus were annihilated by Matsumae clan, and sought the unity of all the tribes.

Aikowin of Uchiura neighboring Matsumae stood against. Haukase of Ishikari held neutrality. All the other tribes sood aside of Shakushain. Even Shumukuru added in the conspiracy by overwhelming hatred to Matsumae.

Social background of Ainu general revolt

At that time, Matsumae clan reduced the exchange ratio in order to stand up finance of a clan again. Dry salmon was a major article for sale of Ainu. 100 salmons valued the same of 300 kg of rice. After the revision salmon devalued 60%!

Another serious problem was that wajin advanced illegally in Ain's territory and hunted salmons indiscriminately. Salmons, the major resources of the life of Ainu was decreased drastically.

There is a precious record of those days. It is the report of secret investigator of Tsugaru clan, who was dispatched to western Ezochi just after the Shakushain's war.

The report was described as below

In Iwanai, wajin puts big fishing net in rivers and catches salmon thoroughly.

A chief of Iwanai states that "A friend of mine killed in anger a shamo (derogate term for wajin) last year, because Matsumae clan drew the exchange ratio of salmon off to less than half."

A chief of Bikuni told "Wajins buy shellfish with high pressure. If the article was only a little short at their expects, they would take 20 bundles more as the penalty in the next year. And if we could not fill the demands, children were caught as hostage and wives were forced to be their mistress."

A chief of Shifukari protested the indiscriminate hunting of salmon, when he suffered a violent reaction. Kekushike, a 70 years old chief of Yoichi visited Matsumae and appealed for heartlessness of a salmon merchant. He was threatened with the violence and the abuse that "You shall be cut your neck off" or "We will cut your chignon" and driven away.

And the revolt began

June 14, 1669

Shumukuru slaughtered 12 wajins in Shikotsu. Ainu in the eastern provinces from Horobetsu (current Noboribetsu) to Shiranuka of Kushiro rose in revolt all at once. They attacked 11.

Then Ainu of western provinces also rebelled. 8 merchant ships were attacked in the area from Suttsu, Otaru to Mashike. Ainus of Soya, Rishiri, Ishikari and the region far east from Kushiro did not participate.

The wajin 273 was killed. The another view, 355. As for the samurai, only 5 were killed. Most of the victims were merchants, falconers, sailors and gold diggers. The drifter out of a clan occupies 193 and more than 2/3.

early July

Shakushain's force departed from Shibuchari toward Matsumae.

Matsumae dispatched a troop of 300 men to Kunnnui, about on the half way to Shibuchari. They were strengthen by 200 gold diggers, and got earthwork and prepared the attack of Ainu force.

Escape of wajin is prohibited. Another troop were sent to Kameda and Kumaishi. Kameda was the secondary defense line. Kumaishi was to be the front line against the Ainu of west.

mid July

The Shogunate looked the situation for a serious matter and appoints Yasuhiro Matsumae in Edo the commander-in-chief of the counter force. Tsugaru clan sends troops by the order of the Shogunate in Matsumae, too. The Shogunate also ordered Nambu clan and Akita clan to prepare the dispatch of troops.

Matsumae clan took loan of weapons from Tsugaru clan et al. Matsumae force added several soldiers and summing up to about a thousand.

28 July

Both forces were confronted across Kunnui river of about 12 width. At first Ainu force attacked with bow and arrow. Then Matsumae force enumerates 200 guns to the fore, and shot a salvo. The next moment, 100 Ainu force were shot dead.

It was as worst as possible to take tactics of center line attack. Because being heavily armored or clothed, poisoned arrow of Ainu did not stick at all.

A short time after the noon, Ain's ranks were broken and they escaped into the mountains.

04 August

Several battles were happened for a week. At the end, Ainu force was destructed completely. Shakushain withdrew to Oshamambe, once a homeland of Koshamain, and call for the guerrilla warfare to Ainu of each place.

mid August

Shakushain took further retreat to Shibuchari and hold a castle.

late August

Yasuhiro Matsumae of a commander-in-chief arrives at Kunnui. He reformed 628 men troops and advanced eastward while clearing the resistance of Ainu. And he aimed at Shibuchari.

The death of Shakushain


Wajin force advanced in Pipoku (current Nikappu). Shakushain was planning protracted war continuing into winter since he concerned their numerical inferiority.

23 October

Wajin force demanded Shakushain to keep peace and to compensate. Shakushain finally accepted the proposal by the advice of his son.

Shakushain attended the banquette for peace, and was drunk. Wajin murdered Shakushain with both 14 executive officers. They killed further 74 people on that day.

24 October

Wajin force burned and remove the fort of Shibuchari.

Shodayu, a wajin hawk hunter and Shakushain's son in law were put on the steak. He had conducted the warfare as the main stuff officer. 3 other wajins alongside Shakushain was slain by cutting head.



Matsumae clan sends troops in the west Ezochi. They arrested the chief of Yoichi. After this, Province Soya and Island Rishiri promises to retain.

Haukase, chief of Ishikari did not break armed neutral posture and refused to appear in a seat of negotiations at first. But he was also surrendered by persuasion of Soya and Rishiri.


Matsumae clan took the tactics of forced surrender on the neighboring area. On the other hand, they took the strategy to negotiate peace formation.

They mop-upped Shiraoi and Kunnnui, and concluded peace with Hidaka and Noshappu (current Nemuro), Akkeshi and Kushiro.


Peace formation with Ainu of Urakawa was concluded. Resistance of Ainu is the end finally.




Mitsukuni Tokugawa, the lord of Mito clan, dispatched exploring a vessel to Ezochi. Mito clan was one of the most powerful Daimyo in Japan, which encouraged the imortance of national defense persistently till Meiji Restration.


Russian empire conquered Kamchatska peninsula and move further south in Chishima chain of islands.


Matsumae clan submits an illustrated map to the Shogunate. It is considered to be the oldest map that drew Chishima.


Matsumae clan carried out census-making of families of wajin place. It reported 15,848 people those lived in Matsumae and 57 villages.


Russia occupied Shumushu and Paramushir island. Both laid in northern end of the Chishima chain.


A Russian expeditionary party headed by Spanberg? cleared the total picture of geography of Chishima chain island.



The place contract system (basho ukeoi-sei)

The introduction of the new taxation system.

since about 1720

Matsumae clan promulgated the new taxation system. The new system divided the items of taxation minutely in such as "kombu"(kelps to eat), cereals, cods, sharks, oils, wines and so on.

This system generated and let it be generalized "the place contract system by merchants." The master of Chigyo entrusted the merchant with trade business of Chigyo place, and collected business tax from the merchant.

This system had a certain character that the clan sold the rights of trade to merchant in the form of leaving matters. Virtually, there were no means in order to settle the accumulated debt from the merchant.

As for the Matsumae clan and the vassal, management became difficult from the "sankin-kotai" or other reosons. The "sankin-kotai" was the system that shogunate forced daimyo's alternate-year residence in Edo.

Major change of the form of production

Another important change was the admittance of fishery operation in the place. Fishery operation in Ainu territory had been performed before but that was not legal. This time, the fishery of various kind of fishes were admitted almost simultaneously. It began the operation of the trout boats, salmon boats and sea cucumber boats.

Merchants bring a new fishery into the "place" depending on the rising demand of Honshu area. They employed Ainus and began fishery by themselves.

Ainus lost their fishery resources. They were now considered to be the worker subordinated to fishing ground, instead of object of trade. With this "privatization", the plundering of Ainu was intensified since time of Chigyo system.

staggering development of marine products

The place contract system developed the amount of marine products. Instead of dry salmons, herrings became the main character. The herring was provided not as foodstuffs but as fertilizers.

Herrings were squeezed to take fish oils. Those which had been squeezed out included phosphoric acid and nitrogen, and the effect to gain flowers and to make the plants stronger.

It was called the golden fertilizer, because it considerably improved productivity of market crops such as raw cotton, rape, or indigo. It circulated in large quantities around Kinki market. It was even said "Herrings supported the base of the flower of public consumption culture of Kyoto, Osaka or Edo."

Another major products was Kombu, which circulates in so far as Okinawa via Osaka or Toyama.

Some kind of marine products of the Ezochi turned to China, and popularity rises as taste food. These were appointed to "Nagasaki bagged seafood", and purchased by the Shogunate directly. Especially, roasted sea cucumber, white dried abalone and "fuka-hire"(shark fin) were called "3 articles of bagged seafood".

There were dried cuttlefish, cockscomb grass, "tengusa"(gelidium grass),  dried bonito, dried fish, agar, dried shrimp, dried scallop et cetera. They were called "varieties of bagged seafood".

Setting up of trading house

about 1740

It was installed the trading house (unjo-ke) controlling the various business in the center of a place. In the fishing season, there were several wajin on duty. They were called "three top-ranking officials of the place." Three ranks was manager, interpreter and accounter respectively. On the contrary, only guards were there in post season of winter.

In addition, the watch box which supervised a fishing ground was built in everywhere. A lot of wajin guards were dispatched there. They were subordinates of a place contractor, not of the official.

Wajin guards were infamous due to their low quality of character. One chronicle says as below:

The guards were chosen by the manager among wajin fishing workers. They were ex-gamblers or drifter persons of a scoundrel. They were the people to be hated and neglected even their parents or relatives.

They did not hesitate the immoral practices frequently. They forced fishing whether the old or child. Even in stormy weather did so.

In the place of Kusuri (current Kushiro), 36 guards among 41in those days had deprived and raped girls of Ainus, and held as their mistress.



The volcano of Ohshima island erupted. Tsunami hit the land of Matsumae 20 km distant from the island. It reached 791 of house destruction, wrecked ship 1521, drowned person 1467 in the villages of Matsumae clan. No information were left about the damage of Ainu.


Matsumae clan opened the place of Kunashiri, and made it the trade place to Etorofu and Uruppu.


Rivalry of Ezo tribes between Noshappu and Soya. 2,000 of Kiitappu clan, one of the Noshappu tribe attacked Soya and gave a lot of casualties.


The emegence of the Russian


It arrived at Uruppu island of Chishima chain of islands a Russian hunter group for the first time. They killed the Ainu elder and did violence to people. After soon they left.


Russian hunters visited Uruppu again. Ainu counterattacked on Russians. They killed 20 people and expelled remainders.


Penyovski's case occurred.

Penyovski was a Hungarian soldier. He participated in the Polish armed forces in and fought against Russia. After a battle, was arrested by the Russian armed forces, and was sent to Kamuchatzka peninsula.

He succeeded to take over a Russian ship and escape. He sailed toward south and arrived at a port of Awa (current Tokushima prefecture in Shikoku). There he was set under the protection of the clan.

Penyovski warned the chief of Nagasaki firm of shogunate about the intention of Russia. He said that Russia set up forts in Chishima and was waiting for the opportunity to advance in Ezochi. After telling that he left for Manila.


A Russian ship entered in port of Kiritappu with the proposal of commerce. Matsumae clan told that "We will reply for the proposal next year" and let them back.


48 Russians visited Kiritappu again to seek the reply. Matsumae clansman declined and noticed "Commerce acts in Ezochi is the governmental ban," and advised to negotiate with the shogunate directly at Nagasaki. This clansman did not report these discussion in the Shogunate.


Russian menace theory rises


Kosaku Yoshio wrote "Watching north."


Heisuke Kudo wrote "Thinking about the talk of Red Ezo." Red Ezo named of Russians. Kudo was Sendai clan doctor, who appealed for necessity of Ezochi defense for advance southward of Russia.

Matsumoto, the accounting magistrate of shogunate was impressed by the book of Kudo. He submitted a letter of inquiry about Ezochi investigation to the chief of the Shogun's Council of Elders Okitsugu Tanuma.


Investigation party of two (east and west) searches for the Ezo ground by the order of the Shogunate.

Tetsugoro Yamaguchi's east Ezochi party investigated to Etorofu and Uruppu islands. These investigation was collaborated by Tsukinoe, the chief of Kunashiri Ainus.

Ihara's west Ezochi expeditionary party went across in Sakhalin. A member of the party named Suzuki explored the central part Ezo (the Okhotsk coast) alone. Ultimately he joined east party. Another party member Oishi arrived at Taraika lake, the central part of Sakhalin and went more to cape Shiretoko, the east end. He went into contact with the Santan people, a nation of Amur.

Five people of west Ezochi including chief Ihara were wintered in Soya, the north end of Ezochi. All of them were freezed to death.


Ezochi expeditionary party submitted a report to Tanuma. Just after that Tanuma loses its position, and the Ezochi exploration comes to a deadlock.

Exploration record in detail was written including nature, the humanities, geography and folk of Ainu, but it is ignored with silence by new government.


Shihei Hayashi wrote "strategy of the marine state."


Tokunai Mogami, a member of east party got back to Edo and criticized Matsumae clan in "Manners, customs, human natures of Ezochi."

① Matsumae clan ignored Ieyasu's black print of seal letter, which ordered "let Ezochi in the hand of Ezo." ② Matsumae clan prohibitted to learn and use Japanese, and even forbad to use of a shade, poncho or sandals. ③ Matsumae clan distinguished Ainu as "a kind of birds and beasts" and abuse as a slave.



Smallpox goes around in Ishikari and extends to 647 dead persons of Ainu. Small pox were spread among Ainu at first in 1624. After that it were repeated fashion and deprived many lives.


Large famine of Tenmei era. There came many people of Tsugaru across the Tsugaru straights.


The poor catch of herrings in Matsumae district. School of fish were extinguished for 20 years afterwards.


It was famine in Soya, Sakhalin and Menashi (east end of Ezochi). Dead from hunger extends to 180 people in Sakhalin, and 800 to 900 in Soya and Menashi.


Ainu revolt in Kunashiri and Menashi

Hida-ya the villainous

Hidaya was the most powerful among the merchant connecting Matsumae clan. Hidaya was also the most merciless exploiter of Ainus. It's ruthless management of the places stirred anger of Ainus and induced the revolt.


Hidaya was a lumber dealer based on Edo. It once paid attention to "Ezomatsu," cipress of Ezochi and acquire the monopoly rights of lumbering and trading from Matsumae clan. Hidaya carried wood in Edo, Osaka and got big profit.


Hidaya spread business to marine products further. It undertook the trade rights at places in the eastern provinces. Muroran, Akkeshi, Kiritappu, Kunashiri was in the hands of Hidaya. Soya was also became the place of theirs in the next year.

The Matsumae clan of these days made a large amount of debt by a big fire of Matsumae town, destruction by fire of Edo residence of the lord, the wedding ceremony of the feudal lord and daimyo's alternate-year residence in Tokyo.

The debt to Hidaya extended to 8183 ryo. Ryo is the unit of the money of those days. The rights of the place contract of Kunashiri area was handed over as the exchange of credit.

Resistance of chief Tsukinoe

Hidaya brought in a fishery of fixed shore nets. In most of it's place, Ainus cannot live alone with fishery because of drastic decrease of resources and had no way but to be employee of wajin. Conflicts between two nations became a kind of class struggle instead of international difference.


Those situation had already been well known about the notoriosity of Hidaya in Kunashiri.

Tsukinoe, the chief of a Kunashiri and Etorofu island, refused Hidaya's large ship to land. He took the freight of ship and repel.

Matsumae clan enforced economy blockades against Kunashiri and Etorofu as a retaliation. It prohibited trade of wajin with Tsukinoe.

Tsukinoe tried to start trade originally with Russia.


Russian ship Nathalia visits ashore Nokkamappu in Etorofu island. Shabalin, the merchant from Irkutuk tried trade negotiations with Matsumae clan by guidance of Tsukinoe.

Matsumae clan officials in Akkeshi met Shabalin et al. Officials declined by the same reason as those of 1772.

Russians went back in vain. They canceled trade with Tsukinoe probably because they thought that would bring no merits.


Tsukinoe consented to trade with Hidaya.

Beginning of the revolt


Hidaya built herring processing factory and started large-scale production of fertilizer. Local Ainus were abused like oxen and horses by low wages. On this account the death from hunger was frequent among Ainus.

The Idea's "diary of Investigation" accused Hidaya hardly. Magosaburo Niida was the chief commander of Matsumae troops that suppressed Ain's revolt and the chief investigator afterwards. Therefore, it cannot be negated the tendency that he was going to put all the crimes on Hidaya.

The diary was written as below:

Hidaya's persons added threats and violence's for Ainu who repelled exploitation and repeated poisoning as a lesson. Those without value as work force, was slaughtered like as old men or sick persons.

In addition, the manager and guards of wajin raped every woman of Ainu whenever they found. They abused the husband who came for protest and moreover compensate the action of protest itself. Those were most arrogant behavior.

May 10, 1789

One of the chief of Kunashiri named Yankichi swallowed up the liquor which had got from a government official of a watch box. After a while Yankichi had severe pain suddenly, and died.

Mamekiri, a brother of Yankichi was angry to this and called for a revolt. Setsuhaya, a son of Tsukinoe acts in concert in this, too. Then Tsukinoe was absent for fishing to Uruppu and Etorofu.

41 armed Ainus attack a trading post for the Ainu and a watch box of Tomari. There they killed 22 people, who were the guards of Hidaya and soldiers of Matsumae clan.

The rebellion military unit swelled more than 200 people and develops into turmoil of the whole island of Kunashiri. Killed wajin was 5 in Tomari, 6 in Toppurai and 10 in Furukamappu.

Six days after the revolt of Kunashiri, Ainu of Menashi district of Nemuro rose in revolt, too. Menashi was the district in the opposite of Kunashiri island.

The rebels were conducted by Horoemekki. That became swollen more than 200 in all adding the soldiers from Kunashiri. They attacked 8 guard posts and killed total of 36 wajins.

Ainu rebellion unit attacked trade ship Daitsu-maru of Hidaya, which anchored at the mouth of Churui river, and killed 13 boatmen. By this affair, dead wajins numbered 71totally.

Tsukinoe's maneuvering

June 1789

Only one wajin, who survived this attack arrived to Matsumae via land route, and told about the accident. Matsumae clan. It was the 24th day since the outbreak that Matsumae clan knew the situation in mid June.

Matsumae clan organized the suppression force of more than 260 and appointed Magosaburo Niida as the commander. Matsumae force went sea route to Nokkamappu, the center of Menashi after the entire army joined in Akkeshi.


Tsukinoe came back in Kunashiri and knew the outbreak of turmoil from the wajin merchant who survived. Being aware of the serious situation, Tsukinoe went back to Etorohu once again and command to confidential Itokoi to reorganize his own force.

Itokoi went to Kunashiri and succeeded to grasp the situation. Almost all of rebels had already transfered to Menashi. Itokoi went across to Menashi along with another chief Shonko and start negotiations rebellion units.

late June

Mamekiri and others stopped battle by the persuasion of elders. 131 of Kunashiri, 183 of Menashi, 314 in total surrendered.

Mass execution

early July

The subjugation party of Matsumae clan arrived at Nokamappu, Meashi. They disarmed the rebel army. 38 chief members were out in jail.

Matsumae forced preliminary examination of rebels by Itokoi and Shonko. The preliminary examination was over. As a result, Mamekiri and Setsuhaya were considered to be a forerunner in Menashi, and Horoemekki to be the leader in Menashi.

21 July

Matsumae clan judged the case that it was equivalent to death penalty to kill wajin merchants and guards without extending to suit.

The seven leaders of the revolt were severed heads in a hill of Nokkamappu. 30 other prisoners knew the execution and began to be exited and made noise. Matsumae soldiers shot all of them with guns.

Their heads were preserved with salts, carried to Matsumae and gibbeted at the castle town. The suppression force took more 43 Ainu captives to Matsumae as the audience to a feudal lord. It is assumed that "Figures of chiefs of the savage" of Hakyo Kakizaki drew them.


Matsumae clan charged Hidaya that "Manager and guards were out of the original idea and committed improperness." Activities of Hidaya, that continued for 4 generations were prohibitted totally in Ezochi.

The elders who calmed the uproar are respected and called "the friend Ezo of the clan." Shonko becomes the representative of Ainu in Menashi, Tsukinoe in Kunashiri respectively. On the other hand, the remnants of rebellion were said to agree that "Tsukinoe shall be murdered."


A small scaled rebellion of Ainu occurred in Kunashiri but suppressed soon.

Intervention of shogunate

Edo shogunate was very serious by this case. It directed each clan of Nambu, Akita, Hatinohe preparations of the dispatch of troops.

After the revolt was over, shogunate dispatched Tokunai Mogami et al as a secret agent in the Ezochi. Mogami had criticised Matsumae clan 2years ago.

This time, he checked out the problem more concretely. That was (1) Immorality of wajin merchant, (2) Lawless vagabonds, (3) Irresponsibility of Matsumae clan.


Shogunate asked answers about the above points. Matsumae clan replied with a report.

(1) We let merchants undertake Ezochi trade. But they stuck profit, flitted Ainus' resources and promoted unfair trade. From now, we will trade with Ainus directly using the ships of ourselves. We will promote the beneficial trade and let Ainus be obedient sincerely.

(2) A lot of wajin vagabonds had flowed in Ezochi illegally as the fishing employee. From now, we will send people of Matsumae as workers.

(3) From now, we build the official posts in Akkeshi of east Ezochi and Soya of west Ezochi. A clerk and several common soldiers will be set there and supervise every matter concerning Ainus.

It seemed that the shogunate did not satisfy this letter. That would become evident later.


Luxman visits Matsumae


Russian mission Luxman visited Nemuro. He sent back Kodayu and two people to Japan. They had seawrecked and rescued during drifting by Russian ship. Luxman sought diplomacy and commerce through this opportunity.

The Shogunate agreed to hold an interview thanks to rescue and transport of drifters.


Luxman entered port of Hakodate. He arrived in Matsumae via land route and negotiated with the shogunate official. Shogunate handed over a certain visa to enter Nagasaki instead of refusing negotiations in Matsumae.


British ship Providence advanced in Abuta and surveyed peripheral sea areas. That emerged ashore of Nemuro in the next year.


The first time of direct control by shogunate

Forced retirement of lord of Matsumae clan


Necessity of Ezochi defense rises against advancing southward of Russia in East Ezochi and Chishima. Shogunate doubt that extorting heavy taxes for Ainu of Matsumae helped Russia as a result.

The shogunate took drastic means. At first it reprimanded lord Michihiro Matsumae and ordered the forced retirement. The reason was that "His step of the Ezochi is not all right. The guard of the coast is not strict, too. In addition, behaviors are imprudent with a lot of irresponsible remarks."

Shogunate superintendent officer Shogen Ishikawa and Daigaku Murakami became assignment in Matsumae. Michihiro was confined to a residence of a lord. Furthermore, Nambu clan and Tsugaru clan came ashore for the Ezo guard.

A large scaled exploring party of Kondo


Next, shogunate planned a large scaled exploration of Ezochi and appointed Juzo Kondo (28 years old) the director. The party was swelled up to 180 members. Tokunai Mogami (44 years old) joins later in Kunashiri.

Party of Kondo advanced to Etorofu island and put up a leveling pole of "Etorofu of Great Nippon" and declares possession. It was said there were already many Russians living there.

The leveling pole was put on the hill of Berutarube at the southernmost of the island. The words were written by a party member Kenji Kimura.


Shogunate devised Ezochi basic policy comprising of five pillars. (1) Industrial development by the Shogunate, (2) Straightening trade with Ainu, (3) The guard policy that turned Etorofu into the center, (4) Fixation of traffics by land and sea for industry and the guard, (5) The expense of Ezochi management was financed from Shogunate.

The direct control of the eastern Ezochi by the Shogunate


Shogunate made decision to turn eastern Ezochi into direct control for seven years. It assumed that "for the adjourning seas guard for a while." The area from Urakawa to Shiretoko peninsula, Kunashiri and Etorofu were put up from Matsumae clan.

About a half year after, shogunate added the area from Shiriuchi to Urakawa into direct control. It was spread by this the range of Shogunate government controlled area including Hakodate.

Shogunate ordered both feudal clans of Nambu and Tsugaru to guard eastern Ezochi. Tsugaru feudal clan commanded Sawara eastward, Nambu feudal clan to guard the area of Urakawa eastward.


Shogunate promulgate the "3 chapters' law" for Ainus. (1) Shogunate would decide the thefts and murders those occurred within Ainu society. (2) It would abolish the place contract system by Matsumae, and make direct trade system referring by shogunate itself. It is assumed that the reality did not change. (3) It encouraged acquirement of Japanese language that had been prohibited. It also measured assimilation and the change of life mode.

The development and the defense plans of shogunate


Juzo Kondo, now the chief of Shogunate on Ezochi affairs, commanded Etorofu development to Kahe of Takadaya, a wealthy merchant.

Kahe of Takadaya aimed Etorofu boarding on his big ship "Shinnetu-maru," which were full of rice, salts, cotton clothes, tobacco and miscellaneous goods.

Then the population of Ainus in Etorofu was estimated 1118. Kahe opened 17 places and founded 7 county and 25 villages. The main village was Shana.


February   Tsugaru and Nambu clan dispatched the guard troop which consisted of three directors, 500 common soldiers for one year rotation. The chief directorate was set in Hakodate, and the guard post were set in Nemuro, Kunashiri, Etorofu by Nambu clan, and Sawara, Etomo by Tsugaru clan.

April   130 people of "Sennin-doshin of Hachioji" settled in Yufutsu and Shiranuka.

"Sennin-doshin of Hachioji" was the association of lower class Samurai. They had a certain licence of samurai holding swords. But in reality, they lived and worked as farmers daily.

They were going to promote agriculture during the off time of the guard work. It is thought a kind of relief measure of famine of Tenmei.

Of these, 33 people died of disease and coldness at the actual place. It was 85 that stayed after three years. They gave up the settlement and became employee of shogunate at Ezochi.

Further explorations


Tadataka Ino surveys the Ezo ground and finished the map of southern half of Ezochi. Juzo Kondo made up the map of Ezochi which synthesized various Ezo maps made during the past approximately 10 years.

Tokunai Mogami et al explored Uruppu and put up a leveling pole of "this land belongs to Japan."


Several groups explored to the north sequentially.

Juzo Kondo departed Hakodate northwards and reached in Soya, the north end shore of the west Ezochi. There, Juzo summoned Ainu of Sakhalin and listened to circumstances.

He took the way home by a land route that was the route of Teshio River - Ishikari River - Nakayama Peak. After inspection, Juzo  submitted "About the necessity of construction of new center for defending Ezochi totally."

In which, Juzo stressed the importance to put up a stronghold in the center of the total Ezochi and opened roads to every direction. He suggested Kabato, Otaru and Sapporo as candidate places.

In the next year,  Rinzou Mamiya and Matsuda Denjuro reached Rakka of Sakhalin. Mamiya went further. He crossed the Mamiya channel to Asia continent, and then went up the Amur river. Finally he reached to Deren of Manchuri in 1810.

Transferring east Ezochi into eternally controlled area



Shogunate decides to take east Ezochi eternally as the government . It employ Ezo prefect to Hakodate.


Shogunate established three buddist temple for enlightenment of Ainus. Those were Zenko-ji in Usu, Touju-in in Samani and Kokutai-ji in Akkeshi. These temples were kinds of branch office of Shogunate and had no supporters like ordinary buddhist temple. Those were financed entirely by shogunate and positioned as a foothold of wajin settlers.


A hair-trigger crisis between Russia

The raid by Fostov


Negotiations with Russian commerce mission Rezanov in Nagasaki end in a breakdown. Rezanov explores Soya district and Sakhalin in his way home. He knew of the defense of the Ezochi being undermanned.

Fostov, Rezanov's subordinate attacked a trading post for Ainu in Kushun-kotan, Sakhalin with Rezanov's instruction.


May   Fostov attacked Etorofu sequentially. He took out the guards from the post at Naibo and Shana. A small war situation occurs in Shana transiently.

It is said that Fostov was punished in Kamchatzka by a Russian government official. Because this action was against intention of Russian government.

The entire Ezochi under direct control of shogunate

Shogunate made decision that it would manage the entire Ezochi directly including the west Ezochi. It is assumed because Matsumae feudal clan did not take positive measures for the north guard.

Shogunate said "Ezochi is close against a foreign country and is suffering under the aggression of Russia. That situation cannot be ruled utterly by one Matsumae clan."

By the investigation of magistrate in this year, the population of Ezochi was 54,097 in total. 30,330 people in wajin places, and 23,767 people in other area.


Shogunate commanded all the Tohoku clans to dispatch 4000 troops corresponding to the attack from Russia. Because they were not accustomed to the hard winter climate, death from illness occurred successively to each clanmany.

As for 100 Tsugaru clansmans who took the field in Shari, 85 people die of illness in the first winter. 119 in 708 soldiers died of illness in the field of Sakhalin in the next year.

Captain Gorovnin custody case

May, 1811

The Gorovnin case occurs in Kunashiri.

A Russian warship Diana was investigating southern sea area of Chishima islands. It put in at Tomari port, Kunashiri and find water, firewood and others.

Officials of shogunate and Nambu clansman stationed there arrested the captain  and 8 people. They were taken to Matsumae, and were detained as captives after the direct investigation of the magistrate of Matsumae. It was considered to be a retaliation action of Japan side against the Fostov case.

Ricordo, vice-captain of Diana bombarded each other with the Nambu troops. After that Riocordo voyaged homeward once.

April, 1812

Gorovnin et al escaped from custody place. They were arrested in Kaminokuni 13 days after. During the escape, they made hide-and-walk in the forests or shores.

The magistrate accommodated them again by a more solid prison.

August, 1812

Ricordo visited Tomari of Kunashiri with Goroji Nakagawa and 6 wajin drifters. Ricordo negotiated about the release of Gorovnin in exchange for these drifters, but ended in failure.

He went to Etorofu and attacked Kanze-maru of Kahe Takadaya. Takadaya and four seamen were taken to Peteropavrovsk in Kamchatzka peninsula.


Ricordo visited Tomari of Kunashiri again with Kahe of Takadaya and demand the Gorovnin release. At that time, Ricordo submitted the letter with joint signature of Siberia governor-general and Okhotsk Director General, in which Russia apologised about the Fostov's attack accepting Takadaya's suggestion.

Shogunate met this proposal. Russia and shogunate reached an agreement by exchange of Gorovnin and Takadaya.

Rossian warship Dianna commanded by Ricordo put in at Hakodate, where exchanged each hostage. The relation of two countries was normalized by aid of Kahe of Takadaya.


Resumption of the place contractor system

About 40 years since then, it went ostensibly sound era in Ezochi. As the sense of impending crisis were fading out, shogunate got feel it the heavy burden to bear the cost of development and defense of Ezochi. On the contrary, the expense to administrate Ezochi jumped up yearly.

Inside the Shogunate, opinions were strengthened that "It is more efficient to entrust to merchants than to continue the direct management." Finally Matsumae magistrate's office gives up the direct management system and decided the contractor of each place by a bid.

Bidding of the administration rights for the fishing ground was done. Large bids for competitive bidding occurred successively. It was said that the cost of bidding oppressed management in all places. Merchants run into indiscriminate hunting of fishery resources to make for recall the investment.

It became used the fixed shore net for salmon capture in the early 1800's. Furthermore, since the mid century, Use of large trap net was started, too. The latter was so large scaled to need three ships and 25 fishermen to raise.

Ainus of inland whose lives had be dependent in salmons as main life resources, were declined and fell into poverty. In addition, the depopulation of an inland department advanced by using Ainus as fishery workers in large quantities.


Epidemics accelerated the misery of Ainu moreover. Smallpox went around in Ishikari, and 833 people out of 2130 inhabitants die. Smallpox displayed violence over several times afterward. The population of Ainus were declined acutely since these days.


Revival of Matsumae clan as the ruler of Ezochi


Shogunate gave up the direct management of Ezochi mainly because of the financial difficulty. Another reason was that it had weakened the wariness against Russia.

Shogunate decided to entrust the jurisdiction to Matsumae clan again. It is said that Tadashige Mizuno, head of council at that time decided by dogmatism. He had suffered the bribe offensive of Matsumae clan.


Masumae clan resumed administration of Ezochi. It followed the contractor system of the Shogunate and strengthend control of contractors.

Administrate system of the market was abolished. Ezochi and all of wajin places were under directly controlled territory., The clan provided rice and money for vassals given places previously.

Matsumae clan made important and reinforce the system for the north guard. It and arranged 6 batteries in Matsumae and 4 in Hakodate.


Shogunate promulgated driving-away of the foreign ship regulations. Anti-Western exclusionalism was flared up in Japan.


Bushiro Matsuura started to explore various countries of Ezochi. His journey extends over sixth times. He recorded lives of oppressed Ainus. Those records were not published during his life because of interference of Matsumae clan and others.


The adoption of open-door policy


The US fleet of admiral Perry entered in Uraga near Edo neglecting shogunate's seclusion policy. He was going to force the adoption of open-door policy haigh-handedly. The fleet calls at a port of Hakodate on the way home.

It was concluded Japan-U.S. friendship treaty, another name "Kanagawa treaty." Hakodate became cooking supply place for American ships along with Shimoda. Similar treaty was concluded with Britain within 1 year.

The reason why U.S.. chose Hakodate was to open the sea route between U.S.. and China.

April   Five Perry fleets were arrived in port of Hakodate. They surveyed Hakodate gulf and neighboring sea area.

June    Hakodate magistrate's office was founded for diplomatic process. 20 km distant area from Hakodate was requisitioned by the magistrate for free zone for foreigners. Hakodate grew swiftly and became the maximal city in Ezochi.


Two Russian warships occupy Kushunkotan, southernmost extreme of Sakhalin. Matsumae feudal clan sends troops against this attack. After that Russia withdrew from Sakhalin in order to give priority to tackling to Crimean War. Russia returned to the way of negotiation with Japan by diplomatic means.


Putchachin, Russian diplomat visited Japan and sought the conclusion of Japan and Russia friendship and commerce treaty. Shogunate replied to this proposal and opened port of Hakodate to Russia in the same way as U.S.. and Britain.

The debate about the border issue was the very troublesome. It is decided that Ezochi belonged to Japan, and northern part of Chishima chain of islands belonged to Russia. The border line was determined between Etorofu and Uruppu island.

It was not settled in the end which country to possess Sakhalin. It became the mixed-residence quarter of two countries.

America, Britain and Netherlands bought "kombu" of the Ezochi at Hakodate, and sold it toward China. The volume of production and the volume of shipment of "kombu" increased largely.


With the opening of a port of Hakodate, the Shogunate made Ezochi including Chishima and Sakhalin direct controlled area again. It divided Ezochi in several parts and commanded the defense duty to 5 feudal clans of the Tohoku district.

The system of defense seemed extremely poor. One Sendai clansman who resided in Akkeshi wrote "There are nothing to defend but one small cannon at the cape."


The second time of direct control by shogunate


Population of Ainu whom the Shogunate grasped these days is 17,810. It had much decreased than 50 years before.


February   Shogunate took Ezochi away from Matsumae clan again, leaving Matsumae town and surrounding villages. Shogunate judged that the duty of defense was too heavy to Matsumae clan alone.

On the same time, shogunate changed it's Ainu policy drastically from quarantine to assimilation. It started to promote a full-scale change to Japanese lifestyle on Ainu people. This new policy was planned to insist that Ainu belonged to Japan and therefore that the area of residence of Ainu belonged Japan.

The new policy conciliated Ainu through trade and protection. Furthermore, it lifted the ban on shades, ponchos and sandals that Matsumae feudal clan forbade. All of them were made with straws of rice.

Shogunate was going to forbid manners and customs of Ainus from ancient days such as earrings, tattoos, mustaches, the soul forwarding of a bear. Furthermore, it forced Nipponization of their hair styles, wearing clothes and names.

It is said that magistrate's official raided Ainus with razors in their hands, and caught and shaved hairs as like wajins did. Ainu who changed style to Japanese one was treated well.

Shogunate encouraged the settlement of wajin to Ezochi instead of decreasing Ainu. Shogunate removed entrance and exit prohibition law to the Ezochi. Plans for agricultural promotion such as rice field development were carried out. It enforced emigrant promotion and took measures to increase permanent resident.


Operation of coal mine was begun in Shiranuka. Vagabonds were employed and Ainus were also employed as auxiliaries. Kayanuma coal mine began to operate 7 years after. It gathers prisoners of Hakodate and Edo as work force. Shiranuka mine was closed due to it's low quality.


The patrol vaccination for the prevention of smallpox in the east and west Ezochi. In reality, it is assumed that it was the experiment on human body that used Ainu.


The case of illegal excavation of Ainu grave


November 20   

British merchant ship Egelia was wrecked in Osawa village, Matsumae. Village master mobilized villagers generally, and saved all 19 persons. British empress Victoria gave a gold case watch to lord Matsumae who had already been only a local ruler then. Lord Matsumae was very proud of that, and held it with him for life.


October 21   Weiss, British consul in Hakodate planned an illegal digging of Ainu human bone for an anthropology study. Three members of consulate excavate graves of Ainu in Mori, which were sent to their own country.

November 22   Illegal digging case was found out. Hidemi Koide, magistrate of Hakodate started face-to-face talk with consul Weiss. At first, Weiss took vague reaction. So Koide demanded the consular jurisdiction under attendance of consuls of France, Holland and America.

Britain fell into predicament and returns 13 human bones to magistrate's office.


January   Magistrate Koide argued that "the case was the result of a plan of the British consulate in whole" and required all the members of British consulate should be punished. Parks, minister of Yokohama shows good faith by changing Weiss.

April   Consul Gower came to Ainu village and apologized to Ainu. He carried out a memorial service, and paid 300 dollars as consolation money. In addition, he paid 142 dollars as the cost for lawsuit.

The case was finally settled when British merchant ship Erasmus returned human bone dug illegally in 1867.  Magistrate's office of Hakodate declared the end of this case.


The Meiji Restoration


March   Shogunate fell down and the loyalist government founded. New government proclaimed "provisional 3 articles for the development of Ezochi." Hakodate prefecture was established instead of magistrate of shogunate.

But the situation of Ezochi did not stabilized by these steps.

Tohoku clans royal to shogunate withdrew its troops preparing the war against the new government. Matsumae clan took neutral position at first. But "justice party" within clan made a coup d'etat supporting the loyalist government.

October   The Shogunate escape force of Takeaki Enomoto came ashore near Hakodate. Mtsumae troops were lost and escapes to Tsugaru.


April   The new government force started counterattack to former shogunate force and retook castle of Matsumae.

May   The former shogunate force challenged the last fight in Hakodate, but lost.

July   Meiji government establish Bureau of Development. Ezochi was renamed "Hokkaido" which means northern shore zone, comparing as "Tokaido" meaning eastern shore zone from Kyoto.



The first protest for Kamikawa Ainu place problem occurs.

The ministry of military affairs arranged the Imperial Guard Division in Asahikawa. It was going to leave Ainu inhabitants living there and to force them transferring in Ishikari.

Chief of the Ainus Much and others protested this plan and succeeded to let the ministry withdraw once.


Sakhalin Bureau of Development was divided from Bureau of Development, and Kiyotaka Kuroda became vice-minister. Kuroda inspected Sakhalin for more than 1 month, and submitted the recommendation report.

He demanded to run Hokkaido and Sakhalin as a sole body. He also proposed to put its capital in Ishikari.


Ainu policy of new government


Meiji government established the Family Registration Act. Ainu was admitted as "commoner  (old aborigine)."

Bureau of Development prohibitted original manners and customs of Ainu such as earrings, tattoos, the house burial of remains, "iyomante"(bear forwarding) and so on. It forced to use Japanese too.


Chishima and Sakhalin exchange treaty was concluded in Russia. Both Chishima and Sakhalin were positioned by government as border zone and Ainu residents were forced to transfer into Hokkaido.

841 Ainu residents in Sakhalin were moved in Hokkaido. They settled in Soya once, but was forced emigration again to suburbs of Sapporo next year.

22 years after, Ainu people in Shimushu island, the northern end island of  the Chishima chain of islands were moved forcibly to Shikotan island, the southend of the chain. Chishima Ainu became extinct afterwards due to diseases or changes of climate.


Bureau of Development unified the naming of Ainu with "old aborigine." It was prohibited deer hunting or salmon fishing with device bows or poisoned arrows around these days.


A large scaled epidemic of smallpox in different areas of Hokkaido. The dead rose to 2557 people for three years.


Policy to settle and develop Hokkaido

At first, the policy of Meiji government concerning Hokkaido was swayed. A sect insisted to conquer Korea and brought about a war that is "Seinan (southwest) war."

After the war was over, government became looking Hokkaido as not only the defense zone but also the resource of development. It was also positioned as the outlet of ex-soldiers of each clan and surplus population. Hokkaido was not the land of Ainu any longer.


Bureau of Development system was abolished, and Hokkaido agency was established 2 years later.

The farmer-soldier regulations were established. The aim of these system was the reclamation of the land of Hokkaido, the relief of samurai antecedents which lost their jobs, and the defense of the north.

A surging wave of immigration of wajin was emerged after the encouragement of the government.

Only less than 20 years after, about a million of people settled. On the contrary, Ainu population was unchanged or slightly decreased.

In 1901, the whole popukation of Hokkaido was 1,011,892 and the population of Ainu was 17,688. Now the Ainu became overwhelmed into position of the minority completely.


Activities of Mr. and Mrs. John Bachelor


John Bachelor was a priest of Anglican Church. He admitted Hokkaido with his wife. The couple lived in Hokkaido for a long time and devoted their life for the sake of Ainus.

They founded Anglican Churches in Biratori, Usu and other villages of Ainus at own expense. They also opened a free medical office in Sapporo, where even the director of Sapporo municipal hospital worked as a volunteer.


Bachelor published the Ainu dictionary which were translated by Japanese and English language too. Their most valuable contribution was the upbringing the leading bearer of Ainu culture.

Yaeko Bachelor Mukai, an Ainu woman whom they made an adopted daughter, made good efforts for Ainu liberation movement.



Meiji government established Hokkaido Aborigines Protection Act in order to deal with the poverty of Ainu people.

Farmlands were also delivered to Ainu people. It was called the salary place. But the limit of lands was only one of a hundred comparing wajin's limit. Furthermore those delivered lands were under control of Hokkaido agency.

It forced assimilation of Ainu nation to wajin. On the other hands, it made unfair differences between two nations. As a principle, Ainu children had to receive segregative education. Education contents for Ainus were limited in "simple education" too.


Ainu salary place problem in Chikabumi

Ainus living in Asahikawa were delivered the salary place in Chikabumi in 1887. About 40 Ainu families were settled voluntarily.


With the establishment of the Imperial Guard Division and the seventh division in Asahikawa, the authorities of Hokkaido agency was going to requisition the salary place in Chikabumi. And they would sell a part of the place to another corporation for enriching the pockets of themselves.

Ainus resisted strongly. It is developed by a large-scale corruption case of the central government. Okura financial combines were seemed to be the wire puller. Okura is the founder of Sapporo beer that is the most delicious in Japan.

At last the authorities gave up a move.

However the requisition of the salary place were continued. In 1916, 80 Ainu families of Nikappu were forced to move to other place in order to construct Imperial pastures.



Ainus became to be mobilized to the war as citizen of Japan.

Russ-Japanese War outbreak this year. 63 Ainu persons followed the army. The leaders were Yamabe of Sakhalin Ainu and Kitakaze of Kamikawa Ainu and others.


Moyoro remains were discovered in Kitami. Existence of Okhotsk culture was confirmed. That is different from Ainu culture and had become extinct earlier.

Kioe Yonemura was the discoverer. Yonemura was a barber of Moyoro village. He was also an eager non-academic archeologist. He came from Tokyo with belief in the existence of Okhotsk culture.


Renaissance of Ainu culture


Chisato Yukie edited and published "Holy poems of Ainu."


Hokkaido Ainu association is established under the sponsorship of the Hokkaido Government Office.


It was published successively, "Kotan" of Hokuto Iboshi, "To young Utari" of Yaeko Bachelor and "A cry of Ainu" of Touzou Kaizawa.


Hokkaido Ainu association renamed to Utari association. In those days, the word "Ainu" was thought to suggest a certain discriminative meanings. But they call themselves Ainu with proud now.


Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone said "Japan is the single nation state. There is not minority race taking discrimination in people having citizenship of Japan."

It became a big social problem.


Ainu culture promotion law


Ainu culture promotion law was established. The formal name is "A law about promotion of Ainu culture and spread of knowledge about tradition of Ainu and enlightenment." Generally it is called Ainu new law.

The first article "purpose" proclaimed that "we will plan the social realization that the pride as a nation of people of Ainu is respected, and contributing to development of various culture of our country."

It approved that the policy of the state had denied ethnicity of people of Ainu, and tried just to assimilate. And it aimed to change the traditional thought.

It positioned the duty of the country and the local public entity to strengthen measures to plan promotion of Ainu culture.

"Hokkaido Aborigines Protection Act" were abolished with this.



Ainu plaintiff won the Nifu valley dam suit. The decision judged land compulsory expropriation to be illegal and recognized Ainu nation as indigenous people.